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 第十一课    世界贸易组 织法

Lesson 11 Law of the World Trade Organization

 

1课文及译文

1.概述

1General Introduction

世界贸易组 织(WTO)是一个旨在监督国际贸易,并使其自由化的组织。根据《马拉喀什协议》的规定,世界贸易组 织正式于199511日成立,并 取代了于1948年成立的关 税与贸易总协定(GATT)。世界贸易组 织主要对参与国之间的贸易进行规制。同时.该组织提供 了一个对贸易协议进行谈判并使之正式化的平台,也提供了一个旨在强制参加国遵守经本国政府代表签署并经本国议会批准的WTO协议的争端解决程序。世界贸易组 织所主要关注的大多数问题都源于之前的贸易谈判(特别乌拉圭 回合谈判)。

 

The World Trade Organization(WTO) is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on January 1,1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1948. The organization deals with regulation of trade between participating countries;it provides a framework for negotiating and formalizing trade agreement, and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants’ adherence to WTO agreement which are signed by representatives of member governments and ratified by their parliaments. Most of the issues that the WTO focuses on derive from previous trade negotiations, especially from the Uruguay Round(1986-1994).

目前,世界贸易组 织正在努力进行一轮贸易谈判:多哈发展议程(或多哈回合)。该轮谈判于2001年开始,旨 在增进占世界大多数人口的贫困国家的公平参与。然而,该轮谈判并非一帆风顺,大宗农产品的出口国与自给农民人口多的国家未能就意在保障农民不受进口猛增影响的“特殊保障措 施”问题达成一 致。时至当下,多哈回合仍然命运未卜。

The organization is currently endeavoring the persist with a trade negotiation called the Doha Development Agenda(or Doha Round), which was launched in 2001 to enhance equitable participation of poorer countries which represent a majority of the world’s population. However ,the negotiation has been dogged by disagreement between exporters of agricultural bulk commodities and countries with large numbers of subsistence farmers on the precise terms of a “special safeguard measure” to protect farmers from surges in imports. At this time, the future of the Doha Round is uncertain.

  WTO153个成员国, 代表世界超过97%的人口 ;还有30个观察员国 ,其中的大多数在谋求成员国资格。WTO的权力机构 由部长级会议(每两年举行 一次)、总理事会(负责实施部 长级会议的政策决议及WTO的日常管理 )和总干事( 由部长级会议任命)等组成。

The WTO has 153 members, representing more than 97% of the world’s population, and 30 observers, most seeking membership. The WTO is governed by a Ministerial Conference, meeting every two years;a General Council, which implements the Conference’s policy decisions and is responsible for day-to-day administration; and a Director-General, who is appointed by the Ministerial Conference.

 

 

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