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法律英语阅 读与翻译教程(21)
3.合同的分类
3,Classification of Contract
 
(1)明示合同 与默示合同。明示合同是指具体条款由当事人明确规定的合同。这种合同可以是口头的或者书面的。默示合同是一种可以通过当事人的行为推断出来的合同。
Express contract and implied contract.An express contract is one in which the terms are stated by the parties; it may be either an oral or written contract. An implied contract is one that is inferred from the conduct of the parties.
 
(2)双务合同 与单务合同。双务合同是一种由当事人相互允诺进行某种将来行为的合同。例如,你与汽车经销商达成一致:你将在下周 取车的时候付款。你们各自允诺在将来进行某种行为;交易商交付汽车,而你将支付价款。与之相反,单务合同是一种一方立即按照要约作出行为的合同。
Bilateral contract and unilateral contract.A bilateral contract is one in which the parties exchange promises to do some future act. For example, you agree with the car dealer that you will pay for your car when you take delivery next week. Each of you has promised to do something in the future: the dealer to deliver the car and you to pay for it. In contrast,a unilateral contract is one in which one party acts immediately in response to the offer.
 
(3)待履行的 合同与已履行的合同。待履行合同是一种某些或者全部合同条款没有履行完毕的合同——上文中的汽 车交易就是一个例子。而已履行合同是指所有合同条款都已经履行完毕的合同。例如,在餐厅里,你已经吃完了饭,并付了款。
Executory contract and executed contract.An executory contract is one in which some or all of the terms are uncompleted the car deal in above paragraph, for example. An executed contract,then , is one which all terms have been completed. For instance, you have eaten your meal and paid your bill at the restaurant.
 
(4)无效合同 ,可撤销合同与不可强制执行的合同。“无效、可撤 销和不可强制执行的”这几个术语 都与下述情形相关:存在违反合 同的情形,或者一方当事人没有遵守协议的条款。
Void, voidable and unenforceable contract.The terms “void, voidable and unenforceable” are relevant in situations where there is a breach of contract or when one party fails to comply with the terms of the agreement.
 
   无效 的合同自始无效,也不会产生损害赔偿金问题。可撤销的合同在有权撤销或否认合同的一方撤销或取消之前一直具有约束力。在很多方面,婚姻就是一种任何一方都可以通过离婚来撤销的合同。不可强制执行的合同是指满足了合 同的基本的普通法要件,但又缺少一些其他的法定要求(如须在公证 人面前签署)的合同。
   A void contract is a nullity from its beginning, and damages do not result. A voidable contract is one that is binding until it is disaffirmed or canceled by the party with the authority to do so. In many ways, marriage is a contract that either party may rescind by obtaining a divorce. Unenforceable contracts are those that meet the basic common law elements for contracts but lack some other additional legal requirements such as being signed in front of a notary public.
 
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