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2. 法典化的宪 法与非法典化的宪 法 

2.Codified Constitution and Uncodified Constitution
(1)法典化的宪 法
Codified constitution
   世界上大多数国家有法典化的宪 法(成文宪法)。法典化的宪 法通常是某种巨大政治变革(比如革命)的产物。任 何国家采纳一部宪法的过程均与推动此等巨大变革的历史和政治背景紧密相连。拥有法典化宪法的国家通常 会赋予宪法超越普通制定法的最高效力。换言之,如果一部制定法和法典化的宪 法之间存在着冲突,该制定法的全部或部分内容可以被法院宣布为超越权限,并被认定为违宪。在美国,联邦最高法院对《宪法》有最终解释权,并有权力对联 邦政府其他两个部们、州的各部门及其他政府机构的行为的合宪性作出裁决。通过对《宪法》含义进行详尽的司法解释,最高法院可扩大或者限制总统和国会的权力。最高法院如此赋予《宪法》生命,使其成为一部随着国家的变 化而变化的“活的”文件。
   Most states in the world have codified constitutions(also known as written constitutions). Codified constitutions are often the product of some dramatic political change, such as a revolution. The process by which a country adopts a constitution is closely tied to the historical and political context driving this fundamental change. States that have codified constitutions normally give the constitution supremacy over ordinary statute law. That is, if there is any conflict between a statute and the codified constitution, all or part of the statute can be declared ultra vires by a court, and struck down as unconstitutional. In the United States, the Supreme Court is the final interpreter of the Constitution and has the power to rule on the constitutionality of the actions of the other two branches of government as well as those of the states and other governmental entities. Through judicial elaboration of the meaning of the Constitution, the Court can broaden or limit the powers of the president and the Congress. In so doing, the Court breaths life into the Constitution, making it a “living” document that changes as the nation changes.
   法典化的宪 法通常由以下几个部分组成:序言(主要 规定国家的目标和制定宪法的目的)和正文(若干条5 实体条文)。在一些宪 法中,序言部分可能会被省略。序言也可能提及上帝,兼及国家的自由、民主或者人权等基本价值观。
   Codified constitutions normally consist of a preamble, which sets forth the goals of the state and the motivation for the constitution, and several articles containing the substantive provisions. The preamble, which is omitted in some constitutions, may contain a reference to God and/or to fundamental values of the state such as liberty,democracy or human rights.
  (2)非法典化的宪 法
   截至 2010年,至少以 色列、新西兰和英国等三个国家是非法典化宪法的国家。非法典化宪法(不成文宪法)是法律和传统在数个世纪内“进化”的产物。与法典化的宪 法不同,非法典化的宪 法包括成文的渊源(如议会颁布 的宪法性制定法)、不成文的渊源(如宪法性传统,先例、王室特权,习惯和传统等的遵守)。在不列颠帝国时期,枢密院的司法委员会是很多英国殖民地(如拥有联邦 宪法的加拿大 和澳大利亚 )的宪法法院 。
Uncodified constitution
   As of 2010 at least three states have uncodified constitutions:Israel, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Uncodified constitutions(also known as unwritten constitutions) are the product of an “evolution” of laws and conventions over centuries. By contrast to codified constitutions, uncodified constitutions include written sources like constitutional statutes enacted by the Parliament and also unwritten sources,such as constitutional conventions, observation of precedents, royal prerogatives, custom and tradition. In the ways of the British Empire, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council acted as the constitutional court for many of the British Colonies such as Canada and Australia which had federal constitutions.
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