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法律英语阅 读与翻译教程(2)

第一课  法的概念及 其分类

 2.法的分类

   按照 不同标准或特征,法可以根据不同的方法进行分类。
 2.Classification of Law
   There are several different ways in which laws can be classified,depending on the criteria or characteristics
   (1)实体法与程 序法
   实体 法规定何为可为之事,何为不可为之事。例如规定不得谋害性命(除非出于自 卫、处于受胁迫状态或醉态) 的法律即属 实体法。与实体法不同,程序法的内容是指一方提起诉讼时应当遵循的步骤.
    a, Substantive Law vs. Procedural Law
   Substantive law explains what you can and you cannot do. For example, you cannot murder another human being unless it was a self-defense, you were under duress, or if you were drugged by another person. Unlike substantive law, procedural law are just steps that must take place when filing a lawsuit against another party.
  (2)公法与私法
   法可 划分为两大部门:公法和私法。公法是调整个人与政府间关系的法律,同时还调整政府自身框架及其运作,公法包括宪法、刑法和行政法。私法是调整私人、私人财产以及私人之间关系的法律。
    b, Public Law vs. Private Law
   Law can be divided into two main branches:public law and private law. Public law is the body of law dealing with the relations between private individuals and the government, and with the structure and operation of the government itself, including constitution law, criminal law, and administrative law. Private law is the body of law dealing with private persons and their property and relationships.  
  (3)刑法和民 法
    刑法规制的 是危害整个社会的行为(向社会承担的义务)。社会通过称作“检察官”(如“地区检察官 ”)的政府官 员,对违法者提起诉讼。行为人被判有罪(如盗窃罪)的,可被处 以监禁刑或罚金刑。与刑法不同,民法调整的是个人间、法人间或个人与法人间的争议,通常受害者会判得赔偿金。例如,车祸中的受害人如向司机主张事故损失或伤害赔偿金的,就是一则民事案件。
    c, Criminal Law vs. Civil Law
   Criminal law or penal law defines breaches of duty to society at large. It is society, through government employees called prosecutors(such as district attorneys),that brings court action against violators. If you are found guilty of a crime such as theft, you will be punished by imprisonment or a fine. Civil law,as opposed to criminal law, is the branch of law dealing with disputes between individuals or organizations, in which compensation may be awarded to the victim. For instance, if a car crash victim claims damages against the driver for loss or injury sustained in an accident, this will be a civil law case.
  (4)普通法与大 陆法
  普通法 是由法官通过法院(及类似 裁判机构) 的判决发展起来,而非通过立法机关制定的制定法,或者行政机构的决定发展起来。普通法国家实行“遵循先例”的原则,也 就是说,美国等普通法国家是基于先例作出裁决的。因为每一司法意见都是后来裁决的先例,所以,普通法有时也被称为“法官造法”。盎格鲁-美利坚法律 植根于普通法的传统之中。在1881年,奥利弗 • 温德尔•霍姆斯大法 官写道,“法律的生命 不是逻辑,而是经验”。普通法的 发展,是对解决时代紧要问题的需要而作出的回应。与普通法不同,大陆法的原则是向全体公民提供可获得的、成文 的法律合集 ,这些法律对其有约束力,并要求法官严格遵守。
    d, Common Law vs. Civil Law
   Common law is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive branch action. Common law countries prosecute with the concept of “ stare decisis”, which means that these countries such as the United States of America make decisions based on precedents. Because each judicial opinion serves as a precedent for later decisions, as a result, common law is sometimes called judge-made law. Anglo-American law is rooted in the tradition of the common law. In 1881,Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes,Jr. Wrote,”The life of the law has not been logic; It has been experience.” Common law developed as a response to the need to find solutions to the pressing issues of the time. Unlike common law, the principle of civil law is to provide all citizens with an accessible and written collection of the laws which apply to them and which judges must follow.
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