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法律英语阅 读与翻译教程(96)

 再举上述日本新陪审 制一文的数段 原文和译文,供读者参考比对。

The Japanese judiciary is a unitary national system. Small claims and minor criminal offenses are overseen by summary courtswhich are typically staffed by retired judges and prosecutors or former court administrative officials- District and high court positions are the exclusive province of an individual who has spent his career within the judicial system. District courts serve as the courts of first instance- In all but very minor cases, district court judges sit in panels of three. They are responsible for deciding all matters of fact and law. Criminal judgments can be appealed to one of the eight high courts. The Supreme Court, which functions as a constitutional court and court of last resortsits atop this hierarchy. By law, Supreme Court justices are appointed by the cabinet In practice however f the judiciary selects who will fill a vacancy on the Court and the cabinet rubber-stamps the decision.(日本法院体 系属于单一国家体系。小额索赔及轻微刑事案件归简易法庭管辖;简易法院的 法官通常由退休的法官、检察官或法院书记官担任。地区法院和髙等法院的法 官则只有职业生涯在法院体系内人员才有资格担任。地区法院是初审法院。除极其轻微的案件外,地区法院中 的一般案件由三名法官组成合议庭审理。合议庭负责审理案件的全部法律和事实问题。刑事判决可向八个高等法院中的一个上诉。最高法院作为宪法法院和 终审法院, 位于整个法院体系的最顶层。依照法律,最高法院法官由内阁任命。但在实践中,实际由司法机关选拔最高法院法官,内阁仅艇行形式上的批准权。〉

In keeping with its civil law originslegislation is the primary source of law. There is only one jurisdiction and criminal procedure is uniform throughout Japan. Criminal law is compiled in two documents♦ the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Penal Code, which are the primary references for criminal adjudication. Case law is of only secondary importance. The Supreme Court determines how various codes and statutes should be interpreted and establishes conventions for adjudicating cases. ( 日本以制定 法为主要的法律渊源,保持了大陆法系的传统。日本只有一个法域(有统一的司 法权),全日本的刑事程序都是统的。审理刑 事案件的主要依据是《刑事诉讼法典》和《刑法典》。判例法的地位次之。最高法院负责解释各法典与制定法并创设惯例,供审判案件所用。)

In addition to exercising judicial powerthe Supreme Court is the highest authority on judicial administration.This authority is exercised through the Court’s General Secretariat, the most powerful organ of the judiciary. Even among bureaucratic civil law systemsthe Japanese judiciary is distinguished by the General Secretariats persistent regulation and manipulation of judicial careers. Staffed by over a hundred career judges, the Secretariat uses its power to ensure that all aspects of the judiciarysuch as fact-finding, application of the law, and sentencingconform to the standards established by the Supreme Court.

(除行使司法 权外,最高法院还是最高的司法行政机关。其行政权限通过最高法院事务总局来实现。事务总局管理与控制职业法官是日本法院体系的特点,虽然官僚主义在各大陆法系国家是普遍的,但日本在这一方面与其他大陆法系国家不同 。事务总局由一百多位职业法官组成,保证法院体系的各个方面,诸如案件事实的查明、法律的适用以及定罪量刑等,均符合最高法院设立的标准。)

对于初学者 而言,在翻译法学论时,译文质量的提高不是一蹴而就的事情。在法学论文的翻译实践中,要使译文做到信、达、雅 的标准,一 方面需要译者不断地在翻译实践中进行经验的累积,进而总结出法学论文所固有的一些规律;另一方面也 需要译者不断地提高自己的法学理论素养,丰富自己的 学科知识,避免翻译中因学科知识断裂而出现的硬伤。在此基础 上,法学论文的译文的质量才可能得到不断的提高。

 

 

 

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