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法律英语阅 读与翻译教程(33)

 3.国际贸易术 语解释通则

3INCOTERMS

国际货物买 卖的当事方已经形成了一些特定的贸易术语,并且共同使用这些术语去分配他们之间的权利和义务。这些贸易术语通过多种标准的缩写形式表达出来,并且每一类的贸易术语都会产生特定的法律后果。最常使用的贸易术语就是CIFFOB。然而,不 确定性依然存在:合同的准据 法不同,它们对上述贸易术语的解释也有所不同。例如,美国《统一商法典》上述贸易术语的定义就有别于英国通法对它们的定义。因此,为了避免突,当事方需要规定使用何种定义。际货物买卖的当事方可选择采用 COTERMS(《贸易术语 解释的国际规 则》)中规定的定 义。INCOTERMS是国际商会 出版的一系列国际销售术语,被国际商事交易广泛使用。它们被世界范围内的政府、法律组织和法律实践者所接受,以解释国际贸易中最常用的术语。这就减少或者消除了因不同国家对贸易术语的不同解释所产生的不确定性。

 

Parties to international sales of goods have developed ceratin special trade terms used commonly the allocate rights and duties between themselves. These trade terms have been expressed through various standard abbreviations and each type of term carries with its specific legal consequences. The most common trade terms are CIF and FOB. However , uncertainties may still exist because the interpretation of these terms can vary depending on the law governing the contract. For example, the definitions of these trade terms under the US Uniform Commercial Code are different from their definitions in English common law, so to avoid controversy, the parties should specify which set of definitions are to apply. Parties to international sales of goods can choose to adopt the definitions set out in INCOTERMS: International Rules for the Interpretation of Trade Terms.INCOTERMS are a series of international sales with terms, published by International Chamber of Commerce(ICC) and widely used in international commercial transactions. These are accepted by governments, legal authorities and practitioners worldwide for the interpretation of most commonly used terms in international trade. This reduces or removes altogether uncertainties arising from different interpretation of such terms in different countries.

CISG9条规定,当 事方受其其确立的习惯的约束,或者受其知悉的或应当知悉的广泛用于国际贸易中的习惯的约束。希望使用INCOTERMS的当事方可 具体说明INCOTERMS的规定对他 们的合同具有约束力。因此,一个受CISG规范的买卖 交易也可使用IN COTERMS

Article 9 of the CISG provides that parties are also bound by practices established between themselves or those widely used in international trade, which they knew or ought to have known. Parties who wish to use INCOTERMS may specify that the provisions of INCOTERMS govern the contract. Hence a sales transaction governed by CISG can incorporate INCOTERMS as well.

INCOTERMS主要是为国 际贸易领域内的人们所创设的。国际贸易领域外的人很难理解这些术语。在国际贸易中,诸如“责任”和“交付”之类的看起 来平常的单词,具有不同于在其他领域中使用时的含义。在国际贸易中,“交付”是指卖方完 成了销售的义务,或者是指完成了合同项下的义务。当货物在公海中的船上,并且有关当事人拒 货物千里之 外时,“交付”就可以进行 。

INCOTERMS were created primarily for people inside the world of global trade. Outsiders frequently find them difficult to understand. Seemingly common words such as “responsibility”and”delivery”have different meanings in global trade than they do in other situations. In global trade,”delivery” refers to the seller fulfilling the obligation of sale or to completing a contractual obligation.”Delivery” can occur while the merchandise is on a vessel on the high seas and the parties involved are thousands of miles from the goods.

INCOTERMS对买卖合同 的当事人关于已出售货物交付的权利和义务进行了规定。它们被用来划分买卖双方的交易费用和责任,并反映了运输实践做法。它们与《联合国国际货物买卖合同公约》保持了高度一致。第一版于1936年问世,目 前的版本于2010年出版。自 201111日,《2010国际贸易术 语解释通则》生效。该版对原先D组的全部 5 个术语作了 修正。

INCOTERMS are relating to rights and obligations of the parties to the contract of sale with respect to the delivery of goods sold. They are used to divide transaction costs and responsibilities between buyer and seller and reflect transportation practices. They closely correspond to the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sales of Goods. The first version was introduced in 1936 and the present dates from 2010. As of January 1,2011, INCOTERMS 2010(the 8st edition) has effect. The changes therein affect all of the five terms previously listed in section D.

 

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