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 5.侵权责任

5,Tort Liability

侵权责任通 常分为故意侵权责任、过失侵权责任和严格责任等三种:严格责任,不论当事人是否有过错,他们都要为自己的行为或产品造成的损害负责。举证责任倒置是过失侵权与严格责任间的一个重要区别。下列情形适用严格责任(不限于以下 几种情形):

 

Tort liability is customarily divided into intentional tort liability, negligence liability and strict liability. Strict liability makes some persons responsible for damages their actions or products cause, regardless of any “fault”on their part. Strict liability mainly includes but not restricted to the following situations:

高度危险行 为:人们从事的 极端危险活动(如炸坝、打 油井、测试火箭发动机或是爆破建筑物等)适用严格责 任。 原告被这些 行为伤害的,不论行为人有多么小心谨慎,都要为该类伤害承担责任。

Abnormally Dangerous ( ultrahazardous) Activities. Strict liability often applies when people engage in inherently hazardous activities, such as bursting dams,”blow-out”oil wells, testing rocket motors, or blasting on a construction site. If a plaintiff is injured by these activities-no matter how careful the doer was-he/she is liable for the injury.

产品责任:严格责任也 适用于某些工业产品案件之中。依严格产品责任,只要缺陷产品对他人造成损害,该产品生产流通过程中的参与者(从生产商、 批发商到零售商,或者他们全体)都可被要求 承担责任。受害人不必证明有过失存在,只须证明产品有缺陷。

Products Liability Strict liability also may apple in the case of certain manufactured products. In strict product liability, typically anyone who is engaged in the stream of the product(from the manufacturer to the wholesaler to the retailer, or all of them) can be held responsible if the product was defective and someone was injured. There is no need to prove negligence but the injured party must prove that the product was defective.

 

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