当前所在位 置:首页 - 信息库

法律英语阅 读与翻译教程(22)
第八课  侵权法
Lesson 8  Tort Law
 
在普通法国 家,侵权行为是指违反了对其他人负有的民事义务(非合同义 务)的不法行为 。侵权行为区别于犯罪行为,后者违反的对象是行为人对整个社会负有的义务。尽管很多行为既可能是侵权行为,也可能是犯罪行为,但对于犯罪行为的起诉通常是国家的责任,由私人起诉的情况很少;然而,任何 一个受到伤害的人都可以提起侵权诉讼。实施了侵权行为的人称为侵权行为人(者)。
1,General Introduction
A tort, in common law jurisdictions , is awrong that involves a breach of a civil duty(other than a contractual duty)owned to someone else. It is differentiated from a crime,which involves a breach of a duty owed to society in general. Though many acts are both torts and crimes, prosecutions for crime are mostly the responsibility of the state, private prosecutions being rarely used;whereas any party who has been injured may bring a lawsuit for tort. One who commits a tortious act is called a tortfeasor.
 
遭受侵权损 害的人有权要求造成这些损害的人或人们给付“损害赔偿 金”,通常是金 钱补偿。侵权法的内容包括法定损害的种类及侵权行为人承担侵权责任的情形。法定损害并不仅限于人身损害。法定损害可能也包括 感情、经济 和声誉损害,以及对隐私权、财产权和宪法权利所造成的侵犯。因此,侵权案件涉及多种不同的主题,比如交通事故、非法监禁、俳镑、产品责任 (指对缺陷产 品承担的责任)、版权侵害及环境污染等等。
A person who suffers a tortious injury is entitled to receive”damages”,usually monetary compensation, from the person or people responsible for those injuries. Tort law defines what a legal injury is and, therefore, whether a person may be held liable for an injury he or she has caused. Legal injuries are not limited to physical injuries. They may also include emotional, economic, or reputational injuries as well as violations of privacy, property, or constitutional rights. Tort cases therefore comprise such varied topics as auto accidents,false imprisonment, defamation, product liability(for defective consumer products), copyright infringement, and environmental pollution, among many others.
 
在普通法世 界的大部分地区,最为主要的侵权责任就是过失侵权。如果受损害的一方能够证明其认定的引起损害之人实施了过失行为。换言之,未尽到合理注意去义务而对他人造成损 害的,侵权 法即允许补偿。
In much of the common law world, the most prominent tort liability is negligence. If the injured party can prove that the person believed to have caused the injury acted negligently, that is, without taking reasonable care to avoid injuring others-tort law will allow compensation.
 
此外,侵权 法的内容也包括故意侵权,行为人故意实施了损害他人行为的即属故意侵权;侵权法的内容还包括“严格责任”或者准侵权 行为,它允许受害方在无需证明过失存在的情形下即获得损害赔偿金。因此,侵权行为可分为过失侵权行为、故意侵权行为和准侵权行为等。
Furthermore ,tort law also recognizes intentional torts, where a person has intentionally acted in a way that harms another, and “strict liability” or quasi-tort, which allows recovery under certain circumstances without the need to demonstrate negligence. Hence ,torts may be divided into Negligence, Intentional Torts, and Quasi-Torts.
 
欢迎24小时咨询各类法律文件翻 译,各类合同翻译报价。法高 法律翻译公司是你身 边最好的翻译伙伴。

友情链接:  法律翻译   广州翻译公 司   合同翻译   大成律师事 务所   德恒律师事 务所   广州翻译公 司   福州翻译公 司   中日翻译   上海翻译公 司   广州翻译公 司   翻译公司   大连翻译公 司 

友情链接:    澳门彩票手机app下载   江苏11选5代理   急速11选5   澳门彩票app二维码   008彩网址首页