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法律英语阅 读与翻译教程(19)

 第七课  合同法

Lesson 7  Contract Law

Ⅰ.课文及译文
Ⅰ.Text &Its Translation
   合同 是相互负有义务的双方或多方当事人达成的、具有法律强制执行力的协议。合同可以以书面形式签订,也可以以口头形式达成(口头合同)或者依双方从事的行为而确立。普通法上违反合同的救济通常是“损害赔偿金 ”或金钱补偿 。在衡平法中,救济可以是合同的实际履行或者禁令。《美国宪法》第1条第10款强调了合 同稳定性的重要性,它规定”任何州不得 通过任何损害合同义务的法律”。
   A contract is a legally enforceable agreement between two or more parties with mutual obligations. Contracts can be in writing,orally or verbally agreed upon(parol contracts)or cerated through the actings of the parties. The remedy at law for breach of contract is usually”damages”or monetary compensation. In equity, the remedy can be specific performance of the contract or an injunction. The importance of contract stability is emphasized by Article I, § 10 of the U.S. Constitution, which provides that”No state shall...pass any...law impairing the Obligation of Contracts.”
   在普 通法中,合同的构成要件包括合意和对价。
   At common law, the element of a contract are mutual assent and consideration.
1.合意:要约与承诺
   在普 通法中,合意的达成主要通过要约和承诺来实现。换言之,当承诺的内容与要约的条款保持一致时,合同双方即达成合意。这一要件即是所谓的“镜像”规则。(受 要约人)作出的承诺 如与要约的条款不一致的,是反要约而非承诺,因而同时构成对原要约的拒绝。
1,Mutual Assent: Offer and Acceptance
   At common law, mutual assent is typically reached through offer and acceptance. That is , when an offer is met with an acceptance that does not vary the offer’s terms. The requirement is known as the “mirror image”rule. If a purported acceptance does vary the terms of an offer, it is not an acceptance but a counteroffer and, therefore, simultaneously a rejection of the original offer.
   要约与承诺 并不需要一定通过口头或书面形式来表示。默示合同中的某些条款并不需要通过文字表示。默示合同有两种形式。
   Offer and acceptance does not always need to be expressed orally or in writing. An implied contract is one in which some of the terms are not expressed in words. The implied contract is in two kinds of forms.
(1)事实默示 合同
   事实 默示合同是指从实际情况推定出来,当事人之间虽未明确表示但却应该已经达成的协议。例如,病人到医生处进行身体检查的行为表明病人同意为此医疗服务支付公平的价款。病人在接受检查后拒绝付款的,即构成对事实默示合 同的违反。
Contract Implied in Fact
   A contract which is implied in fact is one in which the circumstances imply that parties have reached an agreement even though they have not done so expressly. For example, by going to a doctor for a checkup, a patient agrees that he will pay a fair price for the service. If one refuses to pay after being examined, the patient has breached a contract implied in fact.
(2)法律默示 合同。
   法律 默示合同也被称为准合同,因为它在事实上不是一个合同;义务是出于公平和正义,在没有当事人的契约下由法律创设的。在一方当事人如不向另一方负补偿之义务便构成不当得利的情形下,法院利用这种形式的合同对此等情况 提供救济.
Contract Implied in Law
   A contract which is implied in law is also called a quasi-contract, because it is not in fact a contract; rather, the obligation is created by law in absence of agreement between the parties for reasons of justice and fairness. It is a means for the courts to remedy situations in which one party would be unjustly enriched were the or she not required to compensate the other.
   举例 说明,一位水管工误在他人房屋的草坪上安装了一个自动洒水装置。 该房屋所有 人在此之前已知其邻居就要安装新的自动洒水装置,且在安装日早晨看到水管工在他家草坪上安装该洒水装置。他对水管工的错误感到高兴因而只字未提,当水管工后来寄到账单的时候,他拒绝付款。
   For example, a plumber accidentally installs a sprinkler system in the lawn of the wrong house. The owner of the house had learned the previous day that his neighbor was getting new sprinklers. That morning, he sees the plumber installing them in his lawn. Pleased at the mistake, he says nothing, and then refuses to pay when the plumber delivers the bill.
   他是 否应该付款?答案是肯定的。如果(原告)可以证明该 男子已经知道水管工误装洒水装置,法院即可依准合同要求他付款。但如果不能证明该男子事先知情,他将不承担责任。这种主张也被称为“合理服务费 请求权”。
   Will the man be held liable for payment? Yes , if it could be proven that the man knew that the sprinklers were being installed mistakenly, the court would make him pay because of a quasi-contract. If that knowledge could not be proven, he would not be liable. Such a claim is also referred to as”quantum meruit”.
 
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