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法律英语阅 读与翻译教程(14)

 第六课    被告人的主 要权利

Lesson 6  Defendant’s Rights in the Criminal Justice System

Ⅰ.课文及译文
.Text &Its Translation
   美国 刑事司法制度有两项基本内容:一是推定被 告人无罪;二是检方负证明责任,证明被告人有罪须达到排除合理怀疑的标准。此外,刑事被告人还拥有其他权利。
   There are two fundamental aspects of the U.S. Criminal justice system-the presumption that the defendant is innocent and the burden on the prosecution to prove guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. Furthermore, criminal defendants have other rights too.
1.被告人有保 持沉默的权利
   美国 《宪法》第五条修正案规定,被告人在任何刑事案件中都不能被迫做不利于自己的证人(自证其罪)。简单的说,也就是被告人有权保持沉默。如果被告人选择了保持沉默,检察官不能要求其作为证人,法官和辩护律师也不能强 迫被告人提供证词。与此不同的是,在民事案件中被告可以被传唤为证人。
1,The Defendant’s Right to Remain Silent
   The Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution provides that a defendant cannot be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself. In short, the defendant has the right to “sit mute”. The prosecutor cannot call the defendant as a witness, nor can a judge or defense attorney force the defendant to testify if the defendant chooses to remain silent. By contrast, a defendant may be called as a witness in a civil case.
   在刑 事审判中,被告人可自主决定是否在庭审中提供证据。就是在警察的调查中,他们也没有义务协助。尽管特定的金融调查机构有权要求人们回答问题,并可以对拒绝回答问题的人员施以处罚,但是,对于从这种程序中获得的证据※※※※ ,检方是不能在刑事审判中使用的。
   A defendant in a criminal trial may choose whether or not to give evidence in the proceedings. Further , there is no general duty to assist the police with their inquiries. Although certain financial investigatory bodies have the power to require a person to answer questions and impose a penalty if a person refuses, if a person gives evidence in such proceedings, the prosecution cannot adduce such evidence in a criminal trial.
   最高 法院曾裁定,如果刑事被告人行使沉默权,检察机关不得允许检察官令陪审团根据被告人拒绝为自己辩护的行为来作出被告人有罪的推论,不可以此来惩罚被告人。最高法院曾依联邦宪法认定加利福尼亚州宪法有关明确授予检察 官此种权力的条款违宪,并最终推翻 了该条款。
   The Supreme Court ruled that the government cannot punish a criminal defendant for exercising his right to silence, by allowing the prosecutor to ask the jury to draw an inference of guilt from the defendant’s refusal to testify in his own defense. The Court overturned as unconstitutional under the federal constitution a provision of the California state constitution that explicitly granted such power to prosecutors.
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