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法律英语阅 读与翻译教程(1)

 

第一课     法的概念及 其分类

Lesson 1   Law and Classification of Law

 
.课文及译文
Ⅰ.Text &Its Translation
 
 1.概述
 1.General Introduction
   “法”是指由一整 套机构负责执行的规则体系。法以各种方式来勾画出政治、经济和社会的样子,是人际关系的社会调节器。合同法调整生活的方方面面,从公共汽车票的购买到金融衍生品市场上的交易,不一而足。财产法的内容则是与动产和不 动产转让及所 有权相关的 权利与义务。信托法适用于用来投资和金融担保的资产;侵权法 允许当事人 在权利或财产受损时主张赔偿。立法将损害公民权利或财产人罪的,检察机关可依刑法对犯罪者提起诉讼。宪法则是有关创设法律、保护人权以及选举政治代表等问题的纲领性法律。行政法主要用于审查政府机构的裁决;国际法用于※※※ 约束主权国家之间诸如贸易、环境规制或者军事行动之类的事务。早在公元前350年,希腊哲※※※※ 学家亚里士多德就曾断言“法治优于人 治”。
   Law is a system of rules and guidelines,usually enforced through a set of institutions. It shapes politics,economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus ticket to trading on financial derivatives markets. Property law defines rights and obligations related to the transfer and title of personal and real property. Trust law applies to assets held for investment and financial security, while tort law allows to claims for compensation if a person’s rights or property are harmed. If the harm is criminalized in legislation. Criminal law offers means by which state can prosecute the perpetrator. Constitutional law provides a framework for the creation of law, the protection of human rights and the election of political representatives. Administrative law is used to review the decisions of government agencies, while international law governs affairs between sovereign states in activities ranging from trade to environment regulation or military action. Writing in 350 BC, the Greek philosopher Aristotle declared,” The rule of law is better than any rule of individual.”
法提出了诸 多与平等、公平和正义相关的重要且复杂的议题。法国作家阿纳托尔•法郎士1894年曾说,“法律神圣平 等,一视同仁,禁止富人也禁止穷人在大桥下睡觉、在大街上乞讨或偷几条面包。”在一个典型 的民主国家中, 解释和制定 法律的中央机构是政府的三个主要部门,即公正的司法部门、民主的立法部门和负责任的行政部门。 政府机构、 军队和警察在贯彻和执行法律以及向公众提供服务的过程中扮演着重要的角色。虽然上述国家机构均依法律创设并受法律的约束,但独立的法律职业群体与活跃的市民社会亦促进上述机构的进步。
      Law raises important and complex issues concerning equality,fairness and justness,”In its majestic equality”,said the author Anatole France in 1894,”the law forbids the rich and poor alike to sleep under the bridge, beg in the street and steal loaves of bread.”  In a typical democracy, the central institution for interpreting and creating law are the three main branches of government, namely an impartial judiciary, a democratic legislature, and an accountable executive. To implement and enforce the law and provide services for the public, a government’s bureaucracy, the military and police are vital. While all these organs of the state are creatures created and bound by law, an independent legal profession and a vibrant civil society will support their progress.
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